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動態 (73)
ritau
07月09日
ritau
The durian is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio. There are 30 recognised Durio species, at least nine of which produce edible fruit, with over 300 named varieties in Thailand and 100 in Malaysia, as of 1987. Durio zibethinus is the only species available in the international market: other species are sold in their local regions. It is native to Borneo and Sumatra. Named in some regions as the "king of fruits", the durian is distinctive for its large size, strong odour, and thorn-covered rind. The fruit can grow as large as 30 centimetres (12 inches) long and 15 cm (6 in) in diameter, and it typically weighs 1 to 3 kilograms (2 to 7 pounds). Its shape ranges from oblong to round, the colour of its husk green to brown, and its flesh pale yellow to red, depending on the species. Some people regard the durian as having a pleasantly sweet fragrance, whereas others find the aroma overpowering with an unpleasant odour. The smell evokes reactions from deep appreciation to intense disgust, and has been described variously as rotten onions, turpentine, and raw sewage. The persistence of its odour, which may linger for several days, has led to the fruit's banishment from certain hotels and public transportation in Southeast Asia. By contrast, the nineteenth-century British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described its flesh as "a rich custard highly flavoured with almonds". The flesh can be consumed at various stages of ripeness, and it is used to flavour a wide variety of savoury and sweet desserts in Southeast Asian cuisines. The seeds can also be eaten when cooked.
The unusual flavour and odour of the fruit have prompted many people to express diverse and passionate views ranging from deep appreciation to intense disgust. Writing in 1856, the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace provided a much-quoted description of the flavour of the durian: The five cells are silky-white within, and are filled with a mass of firm, cream-coloured pulp, containing about three seeds each. This pulp is the edible part, and its consistence and flavour are indescribable. A rich custard highly flavoured with almonds gives the best general idea of it, but there are occasional wafts of flavour that call to mind cream-cheese, onion-sauce, sherry-wine, and other incongruous dishes. Then there is a rich glutinous smoothness in the pulp which nothing else possesses, but which adds to its delicacy. It is neither acidic nor sweet nor juicy; yet it wants neither of these qualities, for it is in itself perfect. It produces no nausea or other bad effect, and the more you eat of it the less you feel inclined to stop. In fact, to eat Durians is a new sensation worth a voyage to the East to experience. ... as producing a food of the most exquisite flavour it is unsurpassed. Wallace described himself as being at first reluctant to try it because of the aroma, "but in Borneo I found a ripe fruit on the ground, and, eating it out of doors, I at once became a confirmed Durian eater". He cited one traveller from 1599: "it is of such an excellent taste that it surpasses in flavour all other fruits of the world, according to those who have tasted it." He cites another writer: "To those not used to it, it seems at first to smell like rotten onions, but immediately after they have tasted it they prefer it to all other food. The natives give it honourable titles, exalt it, and make verses on it." Despite having tried many foods that are arguably more eccentric, Andrew Zimmern, host of Bizarre Foods, was unable to finish a durian upon sampling it, due to his intolerance of its strong taste. While Wallace cautions that "the smell of the ripe fruit is certainly at first disagreeable", later descriptions by Westerners are more graphic in detail. Novelist Anthony Burgess writes that eating durian is "like eating sweet raspberry blancmange in the lavatory". Travel and food writer Richard Sterling says: its odor is best described as pig-excrement, turpentine and onions, garnished with a gym sock. It can be smelled from yards away. Despite its great local popularity, the raw fruit is forbidden from some establishments such as hotels, subways and airports, including public transportation in Southeast Asia. Other comparisons have been made with the civet, sewage, stale vomit, skunk spray and used surgical swabs. The wide range of descriptions for the odour of durian may have a great deal to do with the variability of durian odour itself. Durians from different species or clones can have significantly different aromas; for example, red durian (D. dulcis) has a deep caramel flavour with a turpentine odour while red-fleshed durian (D. graveolens) emits a fragrance of roasted almonds. Among the varieties of D. zibethinus, Thai varieties are sweeter in flavour and less odorous than Malay ones. The degree of ripeness has an effect on the flavour as well. In 2019, researchers from the Technical University of Munich identified ethanethiol and its derivatives as a reason for its stinky smell. However, the biochemical pathway by which the plant produces ethanethiol remained unclear such as the enzyme that releases ethanethiol. The fruit's strong smell led to its ban from the subway in Singapore; it is not used in many hotels because of its pungency.
Raw durian is composed of 65% water, 27% carbohydrates (including 4% dietary fibre), 5% fat and 1% protein. In 100 grams, raw or fresh frozen durian provides 33% of the Daily Value (DV) of thiamine and moderate content of other B vitamins, vitamin C, and the dietary mineral manganese (15–24% DV, table). Different durian varieties from Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia vary in their carbohydrate content by 16-29%, fat content by 2-5%, protein content by 2-4%, dietary fibre content by 1-4%, and caloric value by 84-185 kcal per 100 grams. The fatty acid composition of durian flesh is particularly rich in oleic acid and palmitic acid.
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ritau
07月06日
ritau
Anemone is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae, native to temperate zones. The genus is closely related to several other genera such as Pulsatilla (pasqueflowers) and Hepatica; some botanists include both of these genera within Anemone. Anemone are perennials that have basal leaves with long leaf-stems that can be upright or prostrate. Leaves are simple or compound with lobed, parted, or undivided leaf blades. The leaf margins are toothed or entire. Flowers with 4–27 sepals are produced singly, in cymes of 2–9 flowers, or in umbels, above a cluster of leaf- or sepal-like bracts. Sepals may be any color. The pistils have one ovule. The flowers have nectaries, but petals are missing in the majority of species. The fruits are ovoid to obovoid shaped achenes that are collected together in a tight cluster, ending variously lengthened stalks; though many species have sessile clusters terminating the stems. The achenes are beaked and some species have feathery hairs attached to them. A common name for anemones is "wind flowers". Anemone is derived from the Greek word anemoi, which in English means "winds". According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Greek ἀνεμώνη (anemōnē) means 'daughter of the wind', from ἄνεμος (ánemos, 'wind') + feminine patronymic suffix -ώνη (-ṓnē, so 'daughter of') The Metamorphoses of Ovid tells that the plant was created by the goddess Venus when she sprinkled nectar on the blood of her dead lover Adonis, and Ovid describes the etymology as referring to the frailty of the petals that can be easily blown away by the wind. "Anemone" may also refer to Nea'man, the Phoenician name for Adonis, referring to an earlier Syrian myth of the god of vegetation, also tusked by a boar.The name windflower is used for the whole genus as well as the wood anemone A. nemorosa. Some of the species are grown in gardens. Their popularity varies by species and region. In addition to certain straight species being available, hybrids and cultivars are available for certain species. Certain species, such as A. coronaria, are typically only available in hybrid form while others, such as A. blanda are nearly always sold in straight species form. Cultivated anemones are nearly always one of the following colors: bluish violet, white, pink, red, and hues in a range between violet and pink. There are no truly blue anemones, despite the frequent use of the label "blue" in marketing to describe blue-violet flowers (flowers that are more violet than blue). Color labelling inaccuracy in marketing is found in treatments of numerous other genera, especially as it concerns the color blue — although some popular garden flowers from the same family are actually blue, such as some selections from Delphinium. One species of anemone, Anemone ranunculoides, is unusual for its yellow flowers. Typically, only double-flowered forms of it are cultivated.
In horticultural terms there are three main groups: 1. spring-flowering species found in woodland and alpine meadows, often tuberous or rhizomatous; e.g. A. nemorosa, A. blanda 2. spring- and summer-flowering species from hot dry areas, with tuberous roots, e.g. A. coronaria 3. summer- and autumn-flowering species with fibrous roots, which thrive in moist dappled shade; e.g. A. hupehensis The spring-flowering fall-planted ephemeral species Anemone blanda is grown in large-scale commercial cultivation and can be purchased in bulk quantities. It is most commonly-available with a bluish violet flower (usually erroneously called "Blue Shades" despite its flower being more purple than blue) that varies from intense to pale, depending upon the individual plant and possibly soil conditions. A white-flowered form is the second-most common type. The least common of the commonly-cultivated forms is a pale pink. The violet, and especially pink, forms sometimes possess petals that fade to white near the flower center. The genus contains quite a number of other spring-flowering species. A. hortensis and the hybrid A. fulgens have less-divided leaves than some others and have rose-purple or scarlet flowers. Among the most well-known anemones is A. coronaria, often called the poppy anemone. It is a tuberous-rooted plant with parsley-like divided leaves and large poppy-like blossoms on stalks of from 15–20 cm high. It can be planted in the fall in zones 7 or 8 without extra protection or in spring in cooler zones. If planted in fall it will flower in the spring and if planted in the spring it will flower in late summer. The flowers are typically scarlet, crimson, bluish purple, reddish purple, or white. There are also double-flowered varieties, in which the stamens in the centre are replaced by a tuft of narrow petals. It has been used as a garden plant, in hybrid form in particular, for a long time in some parts of the world. Double forms are named varieties. Hybrids of the de Caen and St. Brigid groups are the most prevalent on the market. In Israel, large numbers of red-flowering non-hybrid A. coronaria can be seen growing in certain natural areas. Anemone hupehensis, and its white cultivar 'Honorine Joubert', the latter especially, are well-known autumn-flowering selections. They grow well in well-drained but moisture-retentive soil and reach 60–100 cm in height, blooming continually for several weeks. A. hupehensis, A. vitifolia, and their hybrids and are particularly attractive to honeybees. A number of low-growing species, such as the native British A. nemorosa and A. apennina, have woodlands and other shady places as their habitat. Hepatica species typically also grow in shade. Garden-cultivated anemones generally grow best in a loamy well-drained evenly-moist fertile soil, although the ephemeral A. blanda does not require as much moisture during the summer when it is dormant (unlike the related Eranthis species that can suffer if they become too dry even while dormant). Some prairie species that are rarely cultivated, such as Anemone cylindrica, grow well in drier warmer conditions and poor soil. A. coronaria has been described by some professional sources as preferring acidic soil and by others as preferring alkaline soil. Hardy species may be planted in October in many zones. Unlike a hardier species such as A. blanda, A. coronaria is described as hardy only as low as climate zone 7 by some sources and by others hardy only as low as zone 8. Various strategies, such as the use of protection, can be tried to plant them outdoors in fall in zone 6 but results may vary. As with other plants, some species can be readily raised from seed while some hybrids may be sterile. A. blanda typically blooms in mid spring. The larger anemone species typically grow well in partial shade, or in full sun provided they are shielded from the hottest sun in southern areas. A well-drained soil, enriched with compost, is typically utilized.
If cut flowers are desired, it is best to harvest the flowers early in the morning while it is still cold outside while the bloom is still closed. To open your flowers place in room temperature water out of direct sun. A. coronaria blooms can be purchased from some florists, between November and June depending upon availability. "Anemone" has several different meanings depending on the culture and context in which the flower is being used. Several of the Western meanings of anemone flowers pertain to the Greek mythology of the origin of the anemone flower featuring Adonis and Aphrodite. The goddess Aphrodite kept the mortal man Adonis as a lover; when Adonis was gored by a wild boar, Aphrodite's tears at his death mixed with his blood and gave rise to the anemone. In other versions, the boar was sent by other jealous Greek gods to murder Adonis. These origin stories reflect the classical dual meanings of the arrival of spring breezes and the death of a loved one. In the Victorian language of flowers, the anemone represented a forsaken love of any kind, while European peasants carried them to ward off pests and disease as well as bad luck. In other cultures, the meanings differ. In Chinese and Egyptian cultures, the flower of anemone was considered a symbol of illness due to its coloring. The anemone can be a symbol of bad luck in Eastern cultures. The Japanese anemone may be associated with ill tidings.
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ritau
07月01日
ritau
Chamomile (American English) or camomile (British English) is the common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae. Two of the species are commonly used to make herbal infusions for traditional medicine, and there is some evidence that chamomile has an effect on health. The word "chamomile" derived via French and Latin from Greek χαμαίμηλον (khamaimēlon), "earth apple", from χαμαί (khamai) "on the ground" and μῆλον (mēlon) "apple". First used in the 13th century, the spelling "chamomile" corresponds to the Latin chamomilla and Greek chamaimelon. The spelling "camomile" is a British derivation from the French. Some commonly used species include: -Matricaria chamomilla Often called "German chamomile" or "Water of Youth", -Chamaemelum nobile, Roman, English or garden chamomile, also frequently used, (C. nobile Treneague is normally used to create a chamomile lawn). -A number of other species common names include the word "chamomile". This does not mean they are used in the same manner as the species used in the herbal tea known as "chamomile". Plants including the common name "chamomile", of the family Asteraceae, are: *Chamomilla recutita, German Chamomile *Anthemis arvensis, corn, scentless or field chamomile *Anthemis cotula, stinking chamomile *Cladanthus mixtus, Moroccan chamomile *Chamaemelum nobile, Roman Chamomile *Cota tinctoria, dyer's, golden, oxeye, or yellow chamomile *Eriocephalus punctulatus, Cape chamomile *Matricaria discoidea, wild chamomile or pineapple weed *Tripleurospermum inodorum, wild, scentless or false chamomile
Chamomile tea is an herbal infusion made from dried flowers and hot water.Two types of chamomile used are German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). Chamomile may be used as a flavoring agent in foods and beverages, mouthwash, soaps, or cosmetics. When used as an herbal product, such as in tea or as a topical skin cream, chamomile is not likely to have significant health effects or major side effects. Use of chamomile has potential to cause adverse interactions with numerous herbal products and prescription drugs, and may worsen pollen allergies. Apigenin, a phytochemical in chamomile, may interact with anticoagulant agents and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, while other phytochemicals may adversely interact with sleep-enhancing herbal products and vitamins. Chamomile is not recommended to be taken with aspirin or non-salicylate NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), as it may cause herb-drug interaction. "Chamomile consists of several ingredients including coumarin, glycoside, herniarin, flavonoid, farnesol, nerolidol and germacranolide. Despite the presence of coumarin, as chamomile’s effect on the coagulation system has not yet been studied, it is unknown if a clinically significant drug-herb interaction exists with antiplatelet/anticoagulant drugs. However, until more information is available, it is not recommended to use these substances concurrently."
People who are allergic to ragweed (also in the daisy family) may be allergic to chamomile due to cross-reactivity. Chamomile should not be used by people with past or present cancers of the breast, ovary, uterus, endometriosis or uterine fibroids. Chamomile has also historically been used in beer.Unlike tea, in which only the flowers are used, the whole plant has been used. The bitter taste is useful in beer, but it was also used for medicinal purposes. Modern craft breweries and homebrewers use chamomile, and there are several hundred commercially brewed beers with chamomile.
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ritau
06月29日
ritau
The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub in the family Lythraceae, subfamily Punicoideae, that grows between 5 and 10 m (16 and 33 ft) tall. The pomegranate originated in the region extending from Iran to northern India, and has been cultivated since ancient times throughout the Mediterranean region. It was introduced into Spanish America in the late 16th century and into California by Spanish settlers in 1769. The fruit is typically in season in the Northern Hemisphere from September to February, and in the Southern Hemisphere from March to May. As intact sarcotestas or juice, pomegranates are used in baking, cooking, juice blends, meal garnishes, smoothies, and alcoholic beverages, such as cocktails and wine. Today, it is widely cultivated throughout the Middle East and Caucasus region, north and tropical Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, the drier parts of southeast Asia, and parts of the Mediterranean Basin. It is also cultivated in parts of Arizona and the San Joaquin Valley in California. In the 20th and 21st centuries, it has become more common in the shops and markets of Europe and the Western Hemisphere. The name pomegranate derives from medieval Latin pōmum "apple" and grānātum "seeded". Possibly stemming from the old French word for the fruit, pomme-grenade, the pomegranate was known in early English as "apple of Grenada"—a term which today survives only in heraldic blazons. This is a folk etymology, confusing the Latin granatus with the name of the Spanish city of Granada, which derives from Arabic. Garnet derives from Old French grenat by metathesis, from Medieval Latin granatum as used in a different meaning "of a dark red color". This derivation may have originated from pomum granatum, describing the color of pomegranate pulp, or from granum, referring to "red dye, cochineal". The French term for pomegranate, grenade, has given its name to the military grenade.
*Nutrition A 100 g (3.5 oz) serving of pomegranate sarcotesta provides 12% of the Daily Value (DV) for vitamin C, 16% DV for vitamin K and 10% DV for folate (table). Pomegranate seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber (20% DV) which is entirely contained in the edible seeds. People who choose to discard the seeds forfeit nutritional benefits conveyed by the seed fiber and micronutrients. *Symbolism -Ancient Egypt Ancient Egyptians regarded the pomegranate as a symbol of prosperity and ambition. It was referred to by the Semitic names of jnhm or nhm.According to the Ebers Papyrus, one of the oldest medical writings from around 1500 BC, Egyptians used the pomegranate for treatment of tapeworm and other infections. -Ancient and Modern Greece The Greeks were familiar with the fruit far before it was introduced to Rome via Carthage, and it figures in multiple myths and artworks. In Ancient Greek mythology, the pomegranate was known as the "fruit of the dead", and believed to have sprung from the blood of Adonis. The myth of Persephone, the goddess of the underworld, prominently features her consumption of pomegranate seeds, requiring her to spend a certain number of months in the underworld every year. The number of seeds and therefore months varies. During the months, while Persephone sits on the throne of the underworld beside her husband Hades, her mother Demeter mourned and no longer gave fertility to the earth. This was an ancient Greek explanation for the seasons. According to Carl A. P. Ruck and Danny Staples, the chambered pomegranate is also a surrogate for the poppy's narcotic capsule, with its comparable shape and chambered interior. On a Mycenaean seal illustrated in Joseph Campbell's Occidental Mythology (1964), figure 19, the seated Goddess of the double-headed axe (the labrys) offers three poppy pods in her right hand and supports her breast with her left. She embodies both aspects of the dual goddess, life-giving and death-dealing at once. The Titan Orion was represented as "marrying" Side, a name that in Boeotia means "pomegranate", thus consecrating the primal hunter to the Goddess. In the 5th century BC, Polycleitus took ivory and gold to sculpt the seated Argive Hera in her temple. She held a scepter in one hand and offered a pomegranate, like a "royal orb", in the other. "About the pomegranate I must say nothing," whispered the traveller Pausanias in the 2nd century, "for its story is somewhat of a holy mystery."The pomegranate has a calyx shaped like a crown. In Jewish tradition, it has been seen as the original "design" for the proper crown. A pomegranate is displayed on coins from Side. The ancient Greek city of Side was in Pamphylia, a former region on the southern Mediterranean coast of Asia Minor (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey).
Within the Heraion at the mouth of the Sele, near Paestum, Magna Graecia, is a chapel devoted to the Madonna del Granato, "Our Lady of the Pomegranate", "who by virtue of her epithet and the attribute of a pomegranate must be the Christian successor of the ancient Greek goddess Hera", observes the excavator of the Heraion of Samos, Helmut Kyrieleis. In modern times, the pomegranate still holds strong symbolic meanings for the Greeks. When one buys a new home, it is conventional for a house guest to bring as a first gift a pomegranate, which is placed under/near the ikonostasi (home altar) of the house, as a symbol of abundance, fertility, and good luck. When Greeks commemorate their dead, they make kollyva as offerings, which consist of boiled wheat, mixed with sugar and decorated with pomegranate. Pomegranate decorations for the home are very common in Greece and sold in most home goods stores. -China The pomegranate is regarded as a symbol of fertility in China. Introduced to China during the Han Dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), the pomegranate (Chinese: 石榴; pinyin: shíliu) in olden times was considered an emblem of fertility and numerous progeny. This symbolism is a pun on the Chinese character 子 (zǐ) which, as well as meaning seed, also means "offspring" thus a fruit containing so many seeds is a sign of fecundity. Pictures of the ripe fruit with the seeds bursting forth were often hung in homes to bestow fertility and bless the dwelling with numerous offspring, an important facet of traditional Chinese culture. -In European Christian motifs Detail from Madonna of the Pomegranate by Sandro Botticelli, c. 1487 (Uffizi Gallery, Florence) In the earliest incontrovertible appearance of Christ in a mosaic, a 4th-century floor mosaic from Hinton St Mary, Dorset, now in the British Museum, the bust of Christ and the chi rho are flanked by pomegranates. Pomegranates continue to be a motif often found in Christian religious decoration. They are often woven into the fabric of vestments and liturgical hangings or wrought in metalwork. Pomegranates figure in many religious paintings by the likes of Sandro Botticelli and Leonardo da Vinci, often in the hands of the Virgin Mary or the infant Jesus. The fruit, broken or bursting open, is a symbol of the fullness of Jesus' suffering and resurrection. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, pomegranate seeds may be used in kolyva, a dish prepared for memorial services, as a symbol of the sweetness of the heavenly kingdom.
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ritau
06月28日
ritau
*Handling an Infestation* 1. Rinse plants that have a minor infestation. If you only notice a few lace bugs per leaf, you might be able to use a hose to get rid of them. Make sure your hose has a strong stream of water, and spray down the plant to wash the bugs away. 2. Spray insecticides onto the bottom of leaves. Lace bugs and their larva often feed on the bottom of leaves, so you will need to spray the insecticide directly onto the undersides of the leaves. Start in late spring when the eggs first hatch, and reapply every ten to fourteen days. -You can use an insecticidal soap, but make sure you spray the bugs directly with it. Pesticides, such as pyrethrin or neem oil, also work. -Insecticides will kill nymphs and adults but not eggs. 3. Apply horticultural oil in the fall to kill eggs. The eggs appear as black spots along the veins of the leaf. These cannot be killed with insecticides, but they can be killed with horticultural oil. Spray it along the underside of each leaf in the fall. 4. Apply neonicotinoids to the soil if other methods haven't worked. Neonicotinoids include imidacloprid and dinotefuran. When added to the soil, the plant may absorb the substances, which can keep the plant bug free for a whole season. These typically come as a granule or as a concentration. If you have a granule version, sprinkle it around the base of the plant. Water the plant afterwards. If you have a concentration, follow the instructions on the label to mix it with water. Pour it evenly around the base, and water the plant afterwards. Keep in mind that neonicotinoids may also kill off beneficial bugs.
*Assessing the Damage* 1. Examine the leaves. You only need to treat plants that are currently infested with lace bugs. Lace bugs cause white spots to appear on the leaf. The larger your infestation, the paler your leaves will become. A few white dots may mean a small infestation while leaves that are almost completely white indicate a much larger problem. -The underside of the leaf may be covered in dark excrement. -Do this every two weeks, starting in early spring and ending in late summer. 2. Check the undersides of leaves to look for the bugs. There are three different stages of a lace bug’s life. If you can reduce their numbers in early spring while they are still nymphs, you may be able to prevent an infestation in summer. -Eggs are small, black, and oval. Three generations of eggs can be laid in one year, beginning in spring and ending in fall. Fall eggs will hatch next spring. -Nymphs are small. They may have black, spotted markings, and they have not developed wings yet. Nymphs can hatch as early as April and as late as September. -Adults have large wings with a lacy pattern. They may start appearing in early summer. 3. Monitor for early leaf drop. Severe infestations may cause the plant's leaves to drop early. At this point, you should use heavier pesticides to eliminate the lace bugs. New leaves should grow back as long as the infestation is handled.
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ritau
06月22日
ritau
*Removing Dead Leaves, Limbs, and Flowers 1. Use sharp scissors or garden shears. Make sure the scissors or garden shears are very sharp, as dull shears can damage the plants. If you notice any dirt on the shears, soak them in water with a teaspoon of bleach and then wipe them dry. A clean tool will ensure your plants are not exposed to bacteria or pests when you prune them. -You can find garden shears for pruning online or at your local hardware store. -If you are worried about scratching your hands while you prune, wear gardening gloves. 2. Prune the plants at the beginning of their growing season. If you have houseplants that do not flower, prune them in late winter. For houseplants with flowers or blooms, wait until they have bloomed before you prune them. - Do not prune houseplants when unopened buds are present on the stems. 3. Remove dead leaves and limbs at a 45 degree angle. Look for any leaves or limbs on the plant that are brown or discolored. They may also appear limp or dry. Use the shears to cut them off just below the brown or dead area at a 45 degree angle. This will ensure you leave as much of the healthy foliage on the plant as possible. -Do not cut off any leaves or limbs that still appear green and vibrant. -If a large section of the leafy area appears dead, you can cut off the entire branch. Leave the main stem intact and remove branches shooting off of the stem at a 45 degree angle. 4. Trim off any dead flowers. If you have houseplants that are flowering, make sure you check them over for any dead flowers and remove them. The flowers may appear brown, discolored, and limp. They may also feel dry to the touch. Cut the dead flowers off with the shears at the base of the flower’s head. -Removing dead and dying flowers on the plant will encourage the growth of newer, more vibrant blooms.
*Cutting Back Overgrown Branches and Stems 1. Prune back half of the longest branches on the plant. Use the shears to cut them back about a third of their length. Trim the branches off at a 45 degree angle. -If there are any side shoots on the branches further down the base of the plant, you can prune a few of these shoots. -Do not cut off any nodules on the plants as you prune, which are new buds that have not bloomed or opened yet. 2.Remove leggy stems. Check the plant for any stems that are unusually long. They may appear loose or straggling, falling off different areas of the plant. Pruning leggy stems will help the plant to grow in a fuller, more even pattern. Use the shears to cut the leggy stems back to one third their length, cutting at a 45 degree angle. 3. Pinch off the stems. If you have soft-stemmed houseplants like coleus, heartleaf philodendron, and English ivy, make sure you pinch them regularly. Use your thumb and forefinger to remove the tip of a stem. Pinch above the node, which is the growing point where the leaf is attached to the plant. - Pinching off the stems can help maintain the bushy shape of the plant and encourage even growth. It also helps to prevent the growth of leggy stems.
4. Remove 10-20% of the plant’s foliage at a time. Do not over prune the plant, as this can make it difficult for it to grow properly. Make selective cuts to the plant, removing only 10-20% of the foliage at a time. Wait a few weeks to one month to prune the plants again. -Always leave some foliage on the plant when you prune. If you are in doubt, under prune the plant and then reevaluate it a few weeks later.
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ritau
06月22日
ritau
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum. Each pod contains several peas, which can be green or yellow. Botanically, pea pods are fruit, since they contain seeds and develop from the ovary of a (pea) flower. The name is also used to describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceae such as the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and the seeds from several species of Lathyrus. P. sativum is an annual plant, with a life cycle of one year. It is a cool-season crop grown in many parts of the world; planting can take place from winter to early summer depending on location. The average pea weighs between 0.1 and 0.36 gram. The immature peas (and in snow peas the tender pod as well) are used as a vegetable, fresh, frozen or canned; varieties of the species typically called field peas are grown to produce dry peas like the split pea shelled from a matured pod. These are the basis of pease porridge and pea soup, staples of medieval cuisine; in Europe, consuming fresh immature green peas was an innovation of Early Modern cuisine.
The wild pea is restricted to the Mediterranean basin and the Near East. The earliest archaeological finds of peas date from the late Neolithic era of current Greece, Syria, Turkey and Jordan. In Egypt, early finds date from c. 4800–4400 BC in the Nile delta area, and from c. 3800–3600 BC in Upper Egypt. The pea was also present in Georgia in the 5th millennium BC. Farther east, the finds are younger. Peas were present in Afghanistan c. 2000 BC; in Harappan civilization around modern-day Pakistan and western- and northwestern India in 2250–1750 BC. In the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, this legume crop appears in the Ganges Basin and southern India. In early times, peas were grown mostly for their dry seeds. From plants growing wild in the Mediterranean basin, constant selection since the Neolithic dawn of agriculture improved their yield. In the early 3rd century BC Theophrastus mentions peas among the legumes that are sown late in the winter because of their tenderness. In the first century AD, Columella mentions them in De re rustica, when Roman legionaries still gathered wild peas from the sandy soils of Numidia and Judea to supplement their rations. In the Middle Ages, field peas are constantly mentioned, as they were the staple that kept famine at bay, as Charles the Good, count of Flanders, noted explicitly in 1124. Green "garden" peas, eaten immature and fresh, were an innovative luxury of Early Modern Europe. In England, the distinction between field peas and garden peas dates from the early 17th century: John Gerard and John Parkinson both mention garden peas. Sugar peas, which the French called mange-tout, for they were consumed pods and all, were introduced to France from the market gardens of Holland in the time of Henri IV, through the French ambassador. Green peas were introduced from Genoa to the court of Louis XIV of France in January 1660, with some staged fanfare; a hamper of them were presented before the King, and then were shelled by the Savoyan comte de Soissons, who had married a niece of Cardinal Mazarin; little dishes of peas were then presented to the King, the Queen, Cardinal Mazarin and Monsieur, the king's brother. Immediately established and grown for earliness warmed with manure and protected under glass, they were still a luxurious delicacy in 1696, when Mme de Maintenon and Mme de Sevigné each reported that they were "a fashion, a fury". Modern split peas, with their indigestible skins rubbed off, are a development of the later 19th century.
Peas are starchy, but high in fiber, protein, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin K, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc and lutein.Dry weight is about one-quarter protein and one-quarter sugar. Pea seed peptide fractions have less ability to scavenge free radicals than glutathione, but greater ability to chelate metals and inhibit linoleic acid oxidation.
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ritau
06月16日
ritau
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible fruit and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae. The pineapple is indigenous to South America, where it has been cultivated for many centuries. The introduction of the pineapple cultivation to Europe in the 17th century made it a significant cultural icon of luxury. Since the 1820s, pineapple has been commercially grown in greenhouses and many tropical plantations. Further, it is the third most important tropical fruit in world production. In the 20th century, Hawaii was a dominant producer of pineapples, especially for the US; however, by 2016, Costa Rica, Brazil, and the Philippines accounted for nearly one-third of the world's production of pineapples. Pineapples grow as a small shrub; the individual flowers of the unpollinated plant fuse to form a multiple fruit. The plant is normally propagated from the offset produced at the top of the fruit, or from side shoot, and typically mature within a year. Raw pineapple pulp is 86% water, 13% carbohydrates, 0.5% protein, and contains negligible fat (table). In a 100-gram reference amount, raw pineapple supplies 50 calories, and is a rich source of manganese (44% Daily Value, DV) and vitamin C (58% DV), but otherwise contains no micronutrients in significant amounts.
*How to grow 1. Pick out a fresh pineapple. Look for one with firm, green leaves that have not turned yellow or brown. The skin on the fruit should be golden brown and firm to the touch. Smell the pineapple to see if it's ripe: it should emit sweet, heady smell indicating that you've chosen it at just the right time to start a new pineapple plant. -Make sure the pineapple isn't underripe. It needs to be ripe in order to produce another pineapple. -Check to make sure the pineapple isn't too ripe by tugging a little at the leaves. If they come right off, the pineapple is too ripe to plant. Be gentle. -Make sure the pineapple doesn't have scale insects around the base of the leaves. They look like small grayish black spots. 2. Twist the leaves off the top of the pineapple. Grasp the body of the pineapple with one hand and use the other to grab the leaves at the base and twist them off. This method ensures that the base of the leaves will stay intact. It will be attached to a minimum amount of fruit, which you don't need in order for the plant to grow. -If you're having trouble twisting off the top, you can slice off the top of the pineapple. Slice off the excess fruit around the root. -Make sure the base, the very tip of the area where the leaves join together, stays intact. New roots will be sprouting from this, and without it the plant won't grow. 3. Strip off some of the lower leaves to expose the stem. This helps the stem sprout roots once it is planted. Strip until a few inches of the stem are exposed. Cut away any remaining fruit without damaging the stem. 4. Turn it upside down and let it dry for a week. The scars where you made a cut and removed the leaves will harden, which is necessary before you take the next step. -At this point, you can plant the crown into the soil, if you would like. While some people prefer to soak the pineapple crown first, it is not necessary. 5. Fill a large glass with water. The mouth of the glass should be large enough to fit the pineapple crown inside, but small enough so that you can prop it up to keep it from getting completely submerged. 6. Stick a few toothpicks into the pineapple crown. Place them across from each other near the top of the stem. Push them in just far enough so that they'll stay in place. These toothpicks are used to suspend the pineapple crown in the glass of water. 7. Put the crown in the water. The toothpicks should rest on the rim of the glass. The stem should be submerged in the water, and the leaves should stick out the top.
8. Place the glass in a sunny window and wait for the roots to sprout. It should take several days or up to a few weeks for white roots to poke out and begin to grow. -Keep the plant away from extreme temperatures. Don't let it get too hot or too cold. -Change out the water every few days to prevent the growth of mold. 9. Prepare a pot of soil for the crown. Fill a 6-inch pot with light garden soil that has a 30% blend of organic matter. This has the right blend of nutrients for the pineapple plant. 10. Plant the pineapple crown in the pot. Plant the crown when the roots are a few inches long. Wait until they've gotten long enough to take root in soil. If you plant the crown too early it won't do well. As you plant it, make sure that the base of any remaining leaves are just above soil level. Press the soil firmly around the base of the crown without getting any soil on the leaves. 11. Keep the plant moist and warm. It needs a sunny, warm and humid environment where the night temperatures won't drop below 65ºF (18ºC). If conditions are dry, mist the plant regularly. -You can keep the pot outside if you live in a warm climate. If you have cool winters take it indoors during the winter season and keep it in a sunny window. It's important for the plant to get a lot of sun all year round. -To help the rooting process, you can slip a plastic bag over the top of the pot. This will create a mini-greenhouse effect. 12. Give the plant food and water. Water the soil lightly once a week. Fertilize the plant with half-strength fertilizer twice a month during the summer. 13. Look for flowers. It can take several years, but eventually a red cone should appear from the center of the leaves, followed by blue flowers and eventually a fruit. It takes about six months for the fruit to fully develop. The pineapple will grow from the flower, above ground, in the center of the plant.
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ritau
06月15日
ritau
Spider mites (Class Arachnida) are tiny sap-sucking plant pests. They attack the underside of leaves and suck the vigor from the plant; with large infestations they may even kill a plant. As soon as you spot an infestation, it's time to take charge and get rid of them! You can use biological control methods or chemical control methods to deal with a spider mite infestation. 1. Look at the surface of the leaves. If your plant is indeed infested with spider mites, the leaves may have yellow blotches on them. When light falls on the leaves, you may see a silvered look or even streaks of bronze or silver. -While mites usually attack the underside of leaves, they can sometimes get greedy and also eat the upper side of leaves and flowers. Eventually, the mites will suck holes right through the leaves - providing the most obvious evidence of infestation. -Even if you can't find holes in the leaves, your plant may still have spider mites, so keep an eye out for other signs of infestation. -Other signs of mite damage include distortion, deformation, wilting, spotting, streaking or discoloration on the surface of the leave. If the mite damage gets particularly bad, the leaves may start to fall off.
2. Check for white webbing on the plant. This is a giveaway sign of some spider mites. The webbing usually clusters around feeding areas. Note that not all species of spider mite will produce webbing though. 3. Confirm the presence of spider mites. Spider mites are so small, they can be very difficult to see. However, one method you can use to confirm their presence is to take a sheet of white paper, place it beneath the plant you suspect to be infested and and lightly shake the stem of one of the leaves. -A certain number of the spider mites should fall onto the paper. They can be viewed more easily with a magnifying glass. -Spider mites come in a variety of colors, including red, green, yellow and brown. They have eight legs and tend to move quite slowly. -Be on the lookout for spider mites with spots on their backs - these are known as two-spotted spider mites and can be particularly hard to get rid of. 4. Be particularly vigilant with certain species of plants. There are some plants which spider mites seem to favor more than others. -In particular, pay attention to possible infestations on miniature roses, fruit trees, bananas, potted begonias, beans, mint, broad-leafed weeds, strawberries, frangipani and indoor houseplants. -Be aware that the two-spotted spider mite has been known to infest over 100 different species of plant.
5. Be especially alert during dry and dusty weather conditions. These are the conditions where spider mites can cause the most damage, as they are thirsty and are seeking moisture from the leaves of the plant. This also means they are very attracted to anything grown under glass, including plants sitting inside on your windowsills.
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ritau
06月11日
ritau
The avocado (Persea americana), a tree likely originating from south-central Mexico, is classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae. The fruit of the plant, also called an avocado (or avocado pear or alligator pear), is botanically a large berry containing a single large seed. Avocados are commercially valuable and are cultivated in tropical and Mediterranean climates throughout the world. They have a green-skinned, fleshy body that may be pear-shaped, egg-shaped, or spherical. Commercially, they ripen after harvesting. Avocado trees are partially self-pollinating, and are often propagated through grafting to maintain predictable fruit quality and quantity. In 2017, Mexico produced 34% of the world supply of avocados.
Persea americana, or the avocado, possibly originated in the Tehuacan Valley in the state of Puebla, Mexico, although fossil evidence suggests similar species were much more widespread millions of years ago. However, there is evidence for three possible separate domestications of the avocado, resulting in the currently recognized Mexican (aoacatl), Guatemalan (quilaoacatl), and West Indian (tlacacolaocatl) landraces. The Mexican and Guatemalan landraces originated in the highlands of those countries, while the West Indian landrace is a lowland variety that ranges from Guatemala, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador to Peru, achieving a wide range through human agency before the arrival of the Europeans.The three separate landraces were most likely to have already intermingled in pre-Columbian America and were described in the Florentine Codex. The earliest residents were living in temporary camps in an ancient wetland eating avocados, chilies, mollusks, sharks, birds, and sea lions. The oldest discovery of an avocado pit comes from Coxcatlan Cave, dating from around 9,000 to 10,000 years ago. Other caves in the Tehuacan Valley from around the same time period also show early evidence for the presence and consumption of avocado. There is evidence for avocado use at Norte Chico civilization sites in Peru by at least 3,200 years ago and at Caballo Muerto in Peru from around 3,800 to 4,500 years ago. The native, undomesticated variety is known as a criollo, and is small, with dark black skin, and contains a large seed. It probably coevolved with extinct megafauna.The avocado tree also has a long history of cultivation in Central and South America, likely beginning as early as 5,000 BC. A water jar shaped like an avocado, dating to AD 900, was discovered in the pre-Incan city of Chan Chan. The earliest known written account of the avocado in Europe is that of Martín Fernández de Enciso (circa 1470–1528) in 1519 in his book, Suma De Geographia Que Trata De Todas Las Partidas Y Provincias Del Mundo. The first detailed account that unequivocally describes the avocado was given by Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés in his work Sumario de la natural historia de las Indias in 1526.The first written record in English of the use of the word 'avocado' was by Hans Sloane, who coined the term, in a 1696 index of Jamaican plants. The plant was introduced to Spain in 1601, Indonesia around 1750, Mauritius in 1780, Brazil in 1809, the United States mainland in 1825, South Africa and Australia in the late 19th century, and Israel in 1908. In the United States, the avocado was introduced to Florida and Hawaii in 1833 and in California in 1856. Before 1915, the avocado was commonly referred to in California as ahuacate and in Florida as alligator pear. In 1915, the California Avocado Association introduced the then-innovative term avocado to refer to the plant.
The word "avocado" comes from the Spanish aguacate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word āhuacatl [aːˈwakat͡ɬ], which goes back to the proto-Aztecan *pa:wa which also meant "avocado". Sometimes the Nahuatl word was used with the meaning "testicle", probably because of the likeness between the fruit and the body part. The modern English name comes from an English rendering of the Spanish aguacate as avogato. The earliest known written use in English is attested from 1697 as "avogato pear", a term which was later corrupted as "alligator pear". Because the word avogato sounded like "advocate", several languages reinterpreted it to have that meaning. French uses avocat, which also means lawyer, and "advocate" — forms of the word appear in several Germanic languages, such as the (now obsolete) German Advogato-Birne, the old Danish advokat-pære (today it is called avocado) and the Dutch advocaatpeer. In other Central American and Caribbean Spanish-speaking countries, it is known by the Mexican name, while South American Spanish-speaking countries use a Quechua-derived word, palta. In Portuguese, it is abacate. The fruit is sometimes called an avocado pear or alligator pear (due to its shape and the rough green skin of some cultivars). The Nahuatl āhuacatl can be compounded with other words, as in ahuacamolli, meaning avocado soup or sauce, from which the Spanish word guacamole derives. In the United Kingdom, the term avocado pear is still sometimes misused as applied when avocados first became commonly available in the 1960s. Originating as a diminutive in Australian English, a clipped form, avo, has since become a common colloquialism in South Africa and the United Kingdom.It is known as "butter fruit" in parts of India. *Nutrients and fat composition* A typical serving of avocado (100 g) is moderate to rich in several B vitamins and vitamin K, with good content of vitamin C, vitamin E and potassium (right table, USDA nutrient data). Avocados also contain phytosterols and carotenoids, such as lutein and zeaxanthin.
Avocados have diverse fats. For a typical avocado: -About 75% of an avocado's energy comes from fat, most of which (67% of total fat) is monounsaturated fat as oleic acid. -Other predominant fats include palmitic acid and linoleic acid. -The saturated fat content amounts to 14% of the total fat. -Typical total fat composition is roughly: 1% ω-3, 14% ω-6, 71% ω-9 (65% oleic and 6% palmitoleic), and 14% saturated fat (palmitic acid). Although costly to produce, nutrient-rich avocado oil has diverse uses for salads or cooking and in cosmetics and soap products. Avocados are also a good source of vitamins B, E, and C, copper and fiber; their potassium content is higher than bananas.
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